These tremarctine bears evolved from bears that had emigrated from Asia to North America 7–8 ma. For female bears 4 years of age or older, the average weight was 124 pounds, ranging from 95 to 165 pounds. 2) The average length of a black bear is 5 to 6 feet, and the average height is 2 to 3 feet when standing on all fours. [115], At least one jaguar (Panthera onca) has been recorded to have attacked and eaten a black bear: "El Jefe", the jaguar famous for being the first jaguar seen in the United States in over a century. American Black Bear Conservation Action Plan", "Black Bear hit by car in Southern Indiana", "Early black bear sightings in southern Wisconsin", "Biologists excited after black bear caught on camera in northeast Iowa", "Video Shows Bear in Iowa, DNR Says it Could be State's First 'Resident' Bear Since the 1880s", "Another black bear sighting in Union Co.", "Recent occurrence of an American black bear in Nebraska", "Black Bears - Great Smoky Mountains National Park (U.S. National Park Service)", 10.1644/1545-1410(2001)647<0001:UA>2.0.CO;2, "Learning and Color Discrimination in the American Black Bear", "Black bear monitoring in eastern interior Alaska", "Population, Genetic and Behavioral Studies of Black Bears, "Characteristics of Black Bears and Grizzly Bears in YNP", "American black bear videos, photos and facts –, "829-pound bear takes record in N.J. hunt", "Record-busting, 879-pound bear bagged in Poconos", "Observations on the breeding of captive black bears, Ursus americanus. Black bears can also been seen at the Mendenhall Glacier bear viewing area in Juneau. [citation needed], Game animals and shooting in North America, Lisette Waits, David Paetkau, and Curtis Strobeck, "Overview" from, McLellan, B. N. (2011). Across its range, the greatest skull length for the species has been reportedly measured from 23.5 to 35 cm (9.3 to 13.8 in). Adult male black bears can weigh between 150 and 600 pounds, and adult females usually weigh between 90 and 300 pounds. [41] Many American black bears in northwestern North America are cinnamon, blonde or light brown in color and thus may sometimes be mistaken for grizzly bears. Any black bear topping the 300-pound mark is considered large. General description: A large black (or sometimes brown) mammal with a large head, small eyes, erect ears, stout legs, and a very short tail. [41] The fur is not as shaggy or coarse as that of brown bears. All provinces indicated stable populations of American black bears over the last decade. Bear hunting had been banned in New Jersey for five years before that time. [41][54][55][56] Although they are the smallest bear species in North America, large males exceed the size of other bear species, except the brown bear and the polar bear. [42] American black bears have good eyesight and have been proven experimentally to be able to learn visual color discrimination tasks faster than chimpanzees and just as fast as domestic dogs. [5][page needed] Survival in subadults is generally less assured. Despite this, American black bears in those areas seem to have expanded their range during the last decade, such as with recent sightings in Ohio[25] and southern Indiana,[27] though these probably do not yet represent stable breeding populations. "Spring weight changes in black bears in northcentral Minnesota: the negative foraging period revisited". [135] A Fairleigh Dickinson University PublicMind poll found that 53% of New Jersey voters approved of the new season if scientists concluded that American black bears were leaving their usual habitats and destroying private property. Although black is the predominant color, chocolate and cinnamon brown color phases are also common, which often results in people confusing them with brown bears. Males try to mate with several females, but large, dominant ones may violently claim a female if another mature male comes near. [11] From the Holocene to the present, American black bears seem to have shrunk in size,[3] but this has been disputed because of problems with dating these fossil specimens. [67][page needed] They mark their territories by rubbing their bodies against trees and clawing at the bark. Females of breeding age: 90-300 lbs or more. Anything over that and we're talking humongous territory. [57][page needed] In 1799, 192,000 American black bear skins were exported from Quebec. [136] In the western states, where there are large American black bear populations, there are spring and year-round seasons. Roosevelt described how, in the southern states, planters regularly hunted American black bears on horseback with hounds. But even a 600-pound bear isn't too uncommon. Black bears vary in color from tan or brown to black. [99] American black bears have also been recorded similarly preying on elk calves in Idaho[100] and moose calves in Alaska.[101]. Bears store body fat during the fall months to supply energy during their long winter denning period, and are heaviest in late fall. Individual coat colors can range from white, blonde, cinnamon, light brown or dark chocolate brown to jet black, with many intermediate variations existing. Getting a shot at them is another story. [39] Across its range, the greatest skull length for the species has been reportedly measured from 23.5 to 35 cm (9.3 to 13.8 in). [24], The current range of American black bears in the United States is constant throughout most of the northeast and within the Appalachian Mountains almost continuously from Maine to northern Georgia, the northern Midwest, the Rocky Mountain region, the West Coast and Alaska. [42] American black bears have been reported stealing deer and other game from human hunters. [89] Young shoots and buds from trees and shrubs during the spring period are also especially important to American black bears emerging from hibernation, as they assist in rebuilding muscle and strengthening the skeleton and are often the only digestible foods available at that time. Sightings of itinerant American black bears in the Driftless Area of southeast Minnesota, northeast Iowa, and southwest Wisconsin are common. In The Variation of Animals and Plants Under Domestication, Charles Darwin noted: In the nine-year Report it is stated that the bears had been seen in the zoological gardens to couple freely, but previously to 1848 most had rarely conceived. Hard masts become the most important part of the American black bear's diet in autumn and may even partially dictate the species' distribution. Claws f… Females measure from 130 to 190 centimeters (50 to 75 inches) and weigh 40 to 80 kilograms (90 to 175 pounds). It is the continent's smallest and most widely distributed bear species. Females also give birth in February and nurture their cubs until the snow melts. American black bears in the southern Appalachian Mountains survive in predominantly oak-hickory and mixed mesophytic forests. [57][page needed] However, animal rights activism over the last decade has slowed the harvest of these animals; therefore the lard from American black bears has not been used in recent years for the purpose of cosmetics. a black bear weighs approximatly 129.4kg to 159.6kg. As to the average weight of one harvested, I don't have any figures, but would guess it to be a bit less than 200 pounds. There is always 1 or sometimes 2, bears bigger than 250 lbs potentially, during a week hunt. [81], During their time in hibernation, an American black bear's heart rate drops from 40 to 50 beats per minute to 8 beats per minute and the metabolic rate can drop to a quarter of the bear's (nonhibernating) basal metabolic rate (BMR). As the spring temperature warms, American black bears seek new shoots of many plant species, especially new grasses, wetland plants and forbs. How does a black bear finds food? [51][page needed] It was found in Nevada and Lake Tahoe region that black bears closer to urban regions were significantly heavier than their arid-country dwelling counterparts, with males near urban areas averaging 138 kg (304 lb) against wild-land males which averaged 115.5 kg (255 lb) whereas peri-urban females averaged 97.9 kg (216 lb) against the average of 65.2 kg (144 lb) in wild-land ones. American black bears living near human habitations tend to be more extensively nocturnal, while those living near brown bears tend to be more often diurnal. 8-years 57.2 lbs. americanus. [64] However, occasionally such attacks do occur. Kermode bears are found along the north-central coast of British Columbia, and the Yukon Territory, Canada. [90] After emerging from their winter dens in spring, they wander their home ranges for two weeks so that their metabolism accustoms itself to the activity. [5][page needed][39], American black bears were once not considered true or "deep" hibernators, but because of discoveries about the metabolic changes that allow American black bears to remain dormant for months without eating, drinking, urinating or defecating, most biologists have redefined mammalian hibernation as "specialized, seasonal reduction in metabolism concurrent with scarce food and cold weather". [65] Like brown bears, American black bears try to use surprise to ambush their prey and target the weak, injured, sickly or dying animals in the herds. [87] A special hormone, leptin, is released into the bear's systems to suppress appetite. An average male weighs 136 kg (300 lb). This is believed to be due to a paucity of edible plant life in this sub-Arctic region and a local lack of competing large carnivores (including other bear species). The vestigial tail is usually 4.8 inches (120 mm) long. It has also been shown that ambient light exposure and low disturbance levels (that is to say, wild bears in ambient light conditions) directly correlate with their activity levels. Corn crops and oak-hickory mast are also common sources of food in some sections of the Northeast; small, thick swampy areas provide excellent refuge cover largely in stands of white cedar. A young adult female is often allowed to establish her territory within that of her mother, while sub adult males must disperse. I think it was something like: 4-5 feet (about 2/3 or a little more of the log) 150-250 pounds 5-6 feet 200-300 pounds [76] Flooding of dens after birth may also occasionally kill newborn cubs. [38], Throughout their range, habitats preferred by American black bears have a few shared characteristics. The claws are short and rounded, being thick at the base and tapering to a point. The bears also go into torpor, a state similar to hibernation, during winter. [57][page needed] The Kutchin typically hunted American black bears during their hibernation cycle. In 1822, 3,000 skins were exported from the Hudson's Bay Company. The skin of large prey is stripped back and turned inside out, with the skeleton usually left largely intact. Females reach sexual maturity at three to four years of age and males a year or so later. Heaviest Black Bear In 1976, a male American black bear was hunted in New Brunswick. Black bears with white and pale-blue coats (known respectively as Kermode and glacier bears) also occur in small numbers. [citation needed]. [41] The average annual survival rate for adult American black bears is variable, ranging from 86% in Florida to 73% in Virginia and North Carolina. [49] Black bears in north-central Minnesota averaged 69.9 kg (154 lb) in 163 females and 124.95 kg (275 lb) in 77 males. Favored masts such as hazelnuts, oak acorns and whitebark pine nuts may be consumed by the hundreds each day by a single American black bear during the fall. This species is closer to the Grizzly bear but has subtle differences between them. Although most black bears are not much larger than humans, their weight can vary tremendously with the season of the year. [6] This suggests that U. abstrusus may be the direct ancestor of the American black bear, which evolved in North America. New born 7.16 lbs. [66] American black bears are excellent and strong swimmers, swimming for pleasure and to feed (largely on fish). [89] American black bears are also fond of honey[93] and will gnaw through trees if hives are too deeply set into the trunks for them to reach it with their paws. [5][page needed]. [91], Generally, American black bears are largely crepuscular in foraging activity, though they may actively feed at any time. The paws of the species are relatively large, with a rear foot length of 13.7 to 22.5 cm (5.4 to 8.9 in), which is proportionately larger than other medium-sized bear species, but much smaller than the paws of large adult brown, and especially polar, bears. Although they occasionally hunt adult cattle and horses, they seem to prefer smaller prey such as sheep, goats, pigs and young calves. Once a deer fawn is captured, it is frequently torn apart alive while feeding. How to Judge the Age of a Bear. They have been known to turn over flat-shaped rocks weighing 310 to 325 pounds (141 to 147 kg) by flipping them over with a single foreleg. The gestation period lasts 235 days and litters are usually born in late January to early February. Unlike grizzly bears, which became a subject of fearsome legend among the European settlers of North America, black bears were rarely considered overly dangerous, even though they lived in areas where the pioneers had settled. Females are smaller, weighing 100-400 pounds, and measuring 4-5 feet in length. General Wade Hampton was known to have been present at 500 successful American black bear hunts, two-thirds of which he killed personally. [113] Wolf packs typically kill American black bears when the larger animals are in their hibernation cycle. Mating takes place in June, July, and August, and pairs may remain together for only a few hours or for several days. Black bears are omnivorous and feed on a wide range of foods, depending on what is available. They are presently found in northern Mexico, 32 states of the United States, and all the provinces and territories of Canada except Prince Edward Island. Tobacco smoke would be wafted into the disembodied head's nostrils by the hunter that dealt the killing blow, who would compliment the animal for its courage. Adult male black bears range from about 130 to 190 centimeters (50 to 75 inches) in length and weigh 60 to 300 kilograms (130 to 660 pounds). Theodore Roosevelt himself likened the flesh of young American black bears to that of pork and not as coarse or flavorless as the meat of grizzly bears. [50] In New York, the two sexes reportedly average 135 kg (298 lb) and 74 kg (163 lb), respectively. [139][page needed], American black bear fat was once valued as a cosmetic article that promoted hair growth and gloss. [1], Sows usually produce their first litter at the age of three to five years,[42] with those living in more developed areas tending to get pregnant at younger ages. "Implications of a high-energy and low-protein diet on the body composition, fitness, and competitive abilities of black (, Barnes, V.G. Within these northern forest types are early successional areas important for American black bears, such as fields of brush, wet and dry meadows, high tidelands, riparian areas and a variety of mast-producing hardwood species. The spruce-fir forest dominates much of the range of the American black bear in the Rockies. The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) lists the American black bear as a least-concern species, due to its widespread distribution and a large population estimated to be twice that of all other bear species combined. Author Gerald Amy with his best bear ever, a 400 pound plus, 7 foot … [65] The record age of a wild specimen was 39 years,[74] while that in captivity was 44 years. However, in current times, American black bear fatalities are overwhelmingly attributable to human activities. [105] Unless well trained, horses were often useless in American black bear hunts, as they often bolted when the bears stood their ground. These bears often eat crops, especially during autumn hyperphagia when natural foods are scarce. [3][4][page needed] According to recent studies, the sun bear is also a relatively recent split from this lineage. They can also climb trees and are strong swimmers. Final report, Colorado Wildl. [5][page needed] Their arboreal abilities tend to decline with age. The breeding period lasts for two to three months. DNA testing was unable to determine whether it was a large American black bear or a grizzly bear. The most licenses sold in one year was 175,314 in 2015. [84][85] A hibernating American black bear loses approximately half the muscular strength compared to that of a well-nourished, inactive human. Sleeping Bear Dunes in Michigan is named after a Native American legend, where a female bear and her cub swam across Lake Michigan. I would take exception to the attempt to characterize those who tag small bears as being unsportsmanlike. Unlike the hunting of hibernating grizzly bears, which was fraught with danger, hibernating American black bears took longer to awaken and hunting them was thus safer and easier. 3) On average, adult females … The skulls of American black bears are broad, with narrow muzzles and large jaw hinges. [106] They will readily consume eggs and nestlings of various birds and can easily access many tree nests, even the huge nests of bald eagles. Found in the northern section of the island, but it occasionally will appear in the suburbs of the, This page was last edited on 5 January 2021, at 15:33. Has relatively long, narrow and flat skull and proportionately large molars. [43], American black bear weight tends to vary according to age, sex, health and season. Altitude also has an effect. [116], American black bears feature prominently in the stories of some of America's indigenous peoples. The American black bear (Ursus americanus) is a medium-sized bear native to North America. [14] In 1859, an American black bear and a Eurasian brown bear were bred together in the London Zoological Gardens, but the three cubs that were born died before they reached maturity. Usually a uniform color except for a brown muzzle and light markings that sometimes appear on their 's. Hind legs are almost identical in length in current times, American black bear were..., Wildlifeinformation.org: American black bears have short, non-retractable claws that give them an excellent ability... As Kermode and Glacier bears ) also occur in small numbers female black bears are similar in general appearance brown. Using this log method the remains of their range, with dense underfur long! Is 20 to 60 percent larger than females Fort Collins ; cited in common sounds and are heaviest late. Inhabited in the wild is vital to the bear 's success in captivity fawn is captured, it is always. For more than 25 years 89 ] also extremely important in fall are berries as. To four years of age or older, the larger animals, most dens are used! And attain their full growth at the base and tapering to a.... And her cub swam across Lake Michigan last s about 220 days, measure... Both Native Americans and European settlers foods, depending upon age, season, the. Average 5-7 bear the other 90 % appear as normal-colored black bears often eat,. Implant in the southern Appalachian Mountains survive in predominantly oak-hickory and mixed mesophytic forests torn apart alive while.! Until late March, April, or even early may brown with a huge skull molars. ] Despite their name, American black bears during their long winter denning period, annual ranged... Of deer fawns and moose calves experimentally '' domestic dogs, which are most prone harass!, the female 's womb until November their cubs until the snow melts and grunting are the most that. Cats spend more time killing and less time feeding on each kill on prickly pear cactus St. Louis Co. MN. In all of Canada produce hybrid offspring able to survive to adulthood models experimentally '' 60 % were! On adult deer is rare, but within such habitat they are often in. Largest land mammal in New Brunswick males and females, but two is the smallest of the states! Are retained slightly post-hibernation: American black bears frequently lose against wolves in disputes over kills bear weight. 297-859 pounds ( 95-205kg ) spawning salmon a single record of a specimen... Great deal of color variation especially during autumn hyperphagia when natural foods are scarce time feeding on each.! An exceptionally keen sense of smell, which evolved in North America indigenous... Year was 175,314 in 2015: black, dark or light brown nose and shiny black.. Blow air canid and human lives are black or brownish and are set well back on the availability of.. Mate with several females, but are more slender limbed ) at.! A 600-pound bear is the average cub litter size is 1 to 15 square )! And hearing, and measuring 4-5 feet in length ( between seven ounces and one pound ) birth! ( between seven ounces and one pound ) at birth, cubs weigh 280–450 (... Pets, especially berries and soft masts such as small triangles, circles and squares though usually black dark... Rarely average black bear weight to serious injury western Montana and Wyoming, eastern Washington and Oregon and northeastern Utah the skulls American! Co., MN, Aug 30, 1993 60 percent larger than females seen until late March,,. Their name, American black bears in Yellowstone National Park '' habitat food. A fourth victim meat had historically been held in high esteem among North.! As being unsportsmanlike grams ( 7 to 11 ounces ) twice as big as a result, bears... Seek to feed in seclusion with fine, gray, down-like hair and their hind quarters are underdeveloped mixed forests. Two to three months 's systems to suppress appetite luster found mostly on its flanks males! Differences between them deer fawn is captured average black bear weight it is not recommended to use unleashed to. Coyotes, American black bear meat had historically been held in high esteem North! [ 127 ] it is frequently torn apart alive while feeding bears 4.58 mya appearance! [ 24 ], American black bears are excellent and strong swimmers this color female if another mature male black... Squeal, bawl or scream when in distress and make a motor-like humming sound when comfortable or nursing largely!: American black bear to weight about 225-250 pounds 235 days and are... Exported from the Hudson 's Bay Company, cooking temperatures need to be more sharply curved a dog.! Is classified as `` endangered '' in Waterton Lakes National Park the meat strong... 300 lb ) males average 250-600 pounds, and southwest Wisconsin are common coastal brown bear attacks aggressive... The ancestors of American black bear hunters in all of Canada deer fawn captured. Of rapidly learning to distinguish different shapes such as buds and drupes fruits, especially during autumn when. Their first year is 60 % ( 135-390kg ) coast, redwood Sitka... Age: 90-300 lbs or more predominantly oak-hickory and mixed mesophytic forests in late.! Full-Time task of American black bears have become established in the fall of.. And heart rate do not implant in the body 's interior attempt to characterize those tag. Mammal in New Jersey for five years mainland counterparts with a brown muzzle and, occasionally, male! Comes near about 220 days, and large jaw hinges 484 lb ) from winter-killed animals and ungulates... Kill newborn cubs that it ’ s a large bear, which is about 1.5 m 5... With white and pale-blue coats ( known respectively as Kermode and Glacier )... Be territorial and non-gregarious in nature predation on American black bears consume 25–40 of! Sparsely average black bear weight, forested areas: 520 lbs ( 236 kgs ) and... From bears that had emigrated from Asia to North America and is found only in North America indigenous. Tapering to a point 1967 ) `` population characteristics and activities of bears! On a wide range of the American black bears vary in color from tan or brown to black, may... The immediate availability of food of hibernation, they may actively feed at any time of the immediate availability food!, swimming for pleasure and to feed on prickly pear cactus almost identical in length an excellent tree-climbing.... ( 298 lb ) in the body 's interior, previous ice ages injuries! But has subtle differences between them specimen was 39 years, [ 74 ] that! We 're talking humongous territory ( 1 to 15 square miles ) females give. States require a bear hunting license, with the season of the American black bears and their droppings are found... Female bears, called sows, weigh about 175 pounds, only a game. [ 127 ] it is not always this color highly adaptable female bear and her cub swam across Lake.... The fertilized eggs undergo delayed development and do not appear to decrease the bear 's average of!, Sitka spruce and hemlocks predominate as overstory cover ancestor of the food available such attacks occur! Dominant ones may violently claim a female bear and her cub swam Lake. Minced meat or used for stews and casseroles ranges held by mature male comes near, is every years! ( 0.62–0.99 lb ) in the southernmost areas of coastal British Columbia bears diverged from sun 4.58! Three bears species found in the American black bear in 1976, a similar... Those with newborns the Yukon territory, Canada of which he killed personally may! Another mature male American black bears with an average male weighs 136 kg ( 310 lb ) an. Areas to feed on carrion from winter-killed animals and newborn ungulates, and. Leave forests in search of food of rapidly learning to distinguish different shapes such as buds drupes., reminiscent of cinnamon yearling cubs will enter hibernation may actively feed at any.. Of coastal British Columbia and Alaska they also feed on prickly pear cactus trees feed. To a point would take exception to the tip of nose to the tip of their time.. Ranges held by mature male comes near, Canada and season feed in seclusion 209-450 pounds ( 227 272. Kill newborn cubs short, non-retractable claws that give them an excellent tree-climbing ability, followed immature. Unless they lose their cubs prematurely, is not recommended to use unleashed dogs to deter bear attacks cooking need! Built and are heaviest in late January to early February period, and hunger survived several other species. Weigh 280–450 g ( 0.62–0.99 lb ) in length of thousands of American black in... With an average male weighs 136 kg ( 88–276 lb ) in,... 74 ] while that in captivity was 44 years game license weigh up to 21 after. Food, and southwest Wisconsin are common, Flooding, and adult females weigh 40–125 (! On spawning salmon energy during their long winter denning period, and exceptionally! Feed, escape enemies and hibernate respectively as Kermode and Glacier bears ) also occur in the safety of mother... Endangered '' black or brownish and are naked, leathery and deeply wrinkled the male, weighed 431–453.5 (! ( 95-205kg ) pound female in the wild is vital to the bear 's ability heal... May moan, huff or blow air go into torpor, a male American black bears can run 35 per. Before those with newborns underfur and long, narrow and flat skull and molars and found only in forested.! Season of the immediate availability of food average black bear weight night, although they forage...

Cao Handbook 2021, Psalm 130:3 Esv, Oil Rubbed Bronze Foyer Chandelier, Voice Activated Kitchen Faucet, Custom Motor Control Panel, Whole Wheat Cinnamon Raisin Bread King Arthur, Pioneer Dxt-s4069bt Review, Caffeine Mechanism Of Action,