(CHECK MORE THAN ONE IF VOLUNTEERED).RECOMMENDED OPTIONS1. a. “Racial/Ethnic Disparities in Health: The Interplay Between Discrimination and Socioeconomic Status.” Ethnicity and Disease. Do you think you  have ever been unfairly fired or denied a promotion?2. Creator/Author: Perkins, Daniel; Wharton Lindsey; Tang, Neely, and Cheng, Hong Submitter: Hong Cheng Date Uploaded: 06/26/2019 Date Modified: 06/26/2019 Date Created: April 13, 2018 License: Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International Have you ever been UNFAIRLY denied a bank loan?18. 1995 Pp. Expressed anger to the person who caused the problem.14. 474-483,  San Diego, CA: Academic Press.•    Williams, D.R., Mohammed, S.A.  “Discrimination and Racial Disparities in Health: Evidence and Needed Research.” Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 2009 32:20-47.•    Williams, D.R., Mohammed, S.A., Leavell, J., Collins, C.  "Race, Socioeconomic Status and Health: Complexities, Ongoing Challenges and Research Opportunities.” Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 2010 1186:69-101. “Chronic discrimination predicts higher circulating levels of E-selectin in a national sample: the MIDUS study.”  Brain Behavior and Immunity, 2009 23:684-692.•    Shariff-Marco, S., Gee, G.C., Breen, N., Willis, G., Reeve, B.B., Grant, D., Ponce, N.A., Krieger, N., Landrine, H., Williams, D.R., Alegria, M., Mays, V.M., Johnson, T.P., Brown, E.R. NOH3a. Your Education or Income Level. “Race Stress and Physical Health: The Role of Group Identity”  R.J. Contrada and R.D. Try to prepare for possible insults before leaving home?3. “Race, Socioeconomic Status, and Health: The Added Effects of Racism and Discrimination.” Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. & Lepisto, E.M. “The perceived racism scale: A multidimensional assessment of the experience of white racism among African Americans.” Ethnicity and Disease. (In Press). Carefully watch what you say and how you say it?5. ), Society and Health. Have you ever been unfairly prevented from moving into a neighborhood because the landlord or a realtor refused to sell or rent you a house or apartment?6. By Suzannah Weiss. •    Follow-up question for each item:  number of times in your life?S15. 8. 3. Increased your efforts to make things work. Your race4. “The Prevalence, Distribution, and Mental Health Correlates of Perceived Discrimination in the United States.” Journal of Health and Social Behavior. Your Sexual Orientationj. “Racism and Health.” in Kris Heggenhougen and Stella Quah (eds.) 1997 7(5):322-333.•    Clark, R., Anderson, N.B., Clark, V.R., and Williams, D.R. Humiliated    9. At any time in your life, have you ever been UNFAIRLY fired?2. Discrimination, Inequality, and Poverty—A Human Rights Perspective. GLOBAL FOLLOW UP QUESTION AFTER ALL ITEMS: What was the main reason for the discrimination you experienced? Have you ever been unfairly stopped, searched, questioned, physically threatened or abused by the police?5. FOR EACH YES RESPONSE TO THE ABOVE QUESTIONS, HERE ARE THE FOLLOW-UP QUESTIONS: 1. 2000 2:117-131.•    Schulz, A., Williams, D., Israel, B., Becker, A., Parker, E., James, S., and Jackson, J. Your age2. Your ethnicity………1    Your gender………2    Your race………3    Your age………4    Your religion………5    Your physical appearance………6    Your sexual orientation………7    Your income level/social class………8    Other Specify __________ 2. Accepted it as a fact of life.3. 1997; 9:231-261.•    Measure: In the following questions, we are interested in your beliefs about the way other people have treated you. The item “People act as if they think you are not smart” was modified as “People act as if you are dangerous” to reflect a bias against Asians since COVID-19. Hopeless6. How often do your supervisor or coworkers make slurs or jokes about racial or ethnic groups?2. 12. 2. and Neighbors, H., "Racism, Discrimination & Hypertension: Evidence & Needed Research", Ethnicity & Disease. Think of your WORST experience of ____________________. Change Creator Magazine is leading a revolution of mindful entrepreneurship that’s focused on people, planet and profit. “Discrimination, Symptoms of Depression, and Self-rated General Health among African American Women in Detroit:  Longitudinal Results from Eastside Village Health Worker Partnership.”  American Journal of Public Health, 2006 96(7):1265-1270.•    Borrell, L. N., Kiefe, C.I., Williams, D.R., Diez-Roux, A.V., Gordon-Larsen, P.  “Self-Reported Health, Perceived Racial Discrimination, and Skin Color in African Americans in the CARDIA Study.”  Social Science and Medicine, 2006 63:1415-27.•    Richman, L.S., Kohn-Wood, L.P., Williams, D.R., “The Role of Discrimination and Racial Identity for Mental Health Service Utilization.” Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 2007 26(8): 960-981.•    Oyserman, D., Uskul, A.K., Yoder, N., Nesse, R.M., Williams, D.R., “Unfair Treatment and Self-Regulatory Focus.”  Journal of Experimental and Social Psychology, 2007 43:505-512.•    Williams, D.R., González, H.M., Williams, S., Mohammed, S.A., Moomal, H, Stein, D.J. That’s it! A distribution is said to be skewed when the data points cluster more toward one side of the scale than the other, creating a curve that is not symmetrical. American Journal of Epidemiology, 2011 173(11): 1240-1243. The Everyday Discrimination Scale (EDS) may be an appropriate measure because it allows discrimination to be reported with global attributions (1,6,7). Have you ever been unfairly denied a bank loan?9. Discrimination and Romani health: a validation study of discrimination scales among Romani women in Macedonia and Serbia. 2000; 527-564., New York: Russell Sage Foundation, •    Measure: Here are some situations that can arise at work. 1997; 2(3):335-351. o    Krieger N., Smith K., Naishadham D., Hartman C., Barbeau E.M. “Experiences of discrimination: validity and reliability of a self-report measure for population health research on racism and health.” Social Science & Medicine. Have you ever been UNFAIRLY physically threatened or abused by the police?15. Have you ever been UNFAIRLY prevented from moving into a neighborhood because the landlord or a realtor refused to sell or rent you a house or apartment?7. You were denied or provided inferior medical care? 1997; 2(3):335-351.•    Studies of Validity and Reliabilityo    Krieger N., Smith K., Naishadham D., Hartman C., Barbeau E.M. “Experiences of discrimination: validity and reliability of a self-report measure for population health research on racism and health.” Social Science & Medicine. 9 Everyday Examples Of White Privilege. •    Developed for the 1995 Detroit Area Study (DAS)•    Source: Williams, D.R., Yu, Y., Jackson, J.S., and Anderson, N.B. Talked to someone who could do something concrete about the situation. “A Mixed-Methods Approach to Developing a Self-Reported Racial Ethnic Discrimination Measure for Use in Multiethnic Health Surveys.”  Ethnicity & Disease, 2009 19(Autumn):447-453.•    Surkan, P.J., Mukerjee, J.S., Williams, D.R., Eustache, E., Louis, E., Jean-Paul, T., Lambert. I had the honor of interviewing anti-racism experts and advocates on critical questions regarding racism. Entrepreneur, Creator, and Business Consultant. Your Race    4. During active American involvement in World War II (1941–45), propaganda was used to increase support for the war and commitment to an Allied victory. As a Black fashion editor, I've experienced hair discrimination, but never on the scale as a Black woman in a high political role. How did you respond to this experience? Table 2 presents frequencies for various forms of everyday discrimination reported by older African Americans. David R. Williams et al. You were not hired for a job? Part of the reason that data and computation have proved to be so lucrative is their ability to scale. Could you tell me more about what happened? A little4. A lot2. In the financial year 2013-14, we allocated £6.5 million of funding to support 83 projects (with 26 of them running into financial year 2014-15), ranging in scale from £9,000 to £517,000. •    Albert, M.A., Williams, D.R., “Discrimination: An Emerging Target for CVD Risk Reduction?” Invited Commentary. Sean Rayford/Getty Images News/Getty Images. 2000 41:314-332. •    Source: Williams, D.R., González, H.M., Williams, S., Mohammed, S.A., Moomal, H, Stein, D.J. •    Haas, J.S., Earle, C.C., Orav, J.E., Brawarsky, P., Neville, B.A., Williams, D.R. Not at allS17. Two field experiments on discrimination against religious minorities in day‐to‐day interactions (L. D. Bobo, M. L. Oliver, J. H. Johnson, A. Valenzuela, Eds.). (PROBE:  ensure that information is included about the age, gender, and race of the perpetrator).H3. “The Prevalence, Distribution, and Mental Health Correlates of Perceived Discrimination in the United States.” Journal of Health and Social Behavior. International Journal of Public Health, Vol. The biological effects of lifelong exposure to racism or other sorts of discrimination can be complicated, scientists say, but likely tap into the same mechanisms as other types of chronic stress. Tried to keep your feelings to yourself. Criticized or lectured yourself. US DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE VIDEOS QUICK LINKS Coronavirus.govReport a Crime View Most Wanted FugitivesReport and Identify Missing PersonsGet Help & … This has led academic libraries to focus their efforts on meeting the needs of their students and faculty at global campuses and study abroad sites. 6, p. 669. PDF | Identity refers to how people answer the question, " Who are you? " Data derived from the Special Diabetes Program for Indians—Healthy Heart Demonstration Project (SDPI … This project is supported by the Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) under grant number 1 UF5MC327500100 titled Supporting Healthy Start Performance Project. 1, Thousand Oaks, CA:  Sage Publications, 2004 254-259.•    Williams, D.R. •    Expanded from the 1995 Detroit Area Study and the MIDUS study for the YES Health Study. Your Education or Income Level    10. In your day-to-day life‚ how often do any of the following things happen to you? Their effects on commerce, diplomacy, military operations, journalism, and myriad aspects of everyday life were nearly immediate and proved to be long-lasting. Angry2. Everyday Discrimination Scale (Short Version) alpha = .77 Developed for the Chicago Community Adult Health Study (CCAHS) Source : Sternthal, M., Slopen, N., Williams, D.R. In what year did you first have an experience of ___________________?H1e. How certain are you that __________ was the main reason for this experience?Absolutely positive        Pretty sure    Somewhat doubtful    Very doubtfulH2. 9, 34 The everyday discrimination scale is being used in an increasing number of studies of discrimination across a variety of populations. Your Height or Weight    7. Have you ever been UNFAIRLY denied a scholarship?12. Source: Williams, D.R., Yu, Y., Jackson, J.S., and Anderson, N.B. Prismatic Metropolis: Inequality in Los Angeles. It captures what we call microaggressions, the little indignities of everyday life. 6. Worked harder to prove them wrong. 2005; 61(7):1576-1596. o    Taylor T.R., Kamarck T.W., Shiffman S. “Validation of the Detroit area study discrimination scale in a community sample of older African American adults: the Pittsburgh healthy heart project.” International Journal of Behavioral Medicine. 404-416.•    Williams, D.R. What do you think was the main reason for your worst experience? Intersectionality is an analytical framework for understanding how aspects of a person's social and political identities combine to create different modes of discrimination and privilege.Examples of these aspects are gender, caste, sex, race, class, sexuality, religion, disability, physical appearance, and height. “Race, Place, and Discrimination.” in Carol Gardner (ed. Internet. How did this experience make you feel? Your Age    5. Intersectionality identifies multiple factors of advantage and disadvantage. 1990; 30 (12), 1273-1281.H6. •    Source: In Press  Williams, D.R., John, D., Oyserman, D., Sonnega, J., Mohammed, S.A., Jackson, J.S. How often do your coworkers use racial or ethnic slurs or jokes?7. Follow-up questions after each item:1. Some other reason for discrimination (Please specify:)________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________S16. Prismatic Metropolis: Inequality in Los Angeles. “There’s no such thing as an appropriate joke. American Journal of Medical Sciences, 2003 325(6):315-331.•    Williams, D.R. Unlike members of the other varnas, Shudras are not permitted to perform the upanayana, the initiatory rite into the study of the Vedas. Carefully watch what you say and how you say it.4. Vulnerable    8. 1997 9:231-261.•    Williams, D.R., Yu, Y. and Jackson, J.S. In addition to what we have talked about, is there any other way you have been treated UNFAIRLY AT WORK, for example, prevented from doing something or been hassled or made to feel inferior?Housing6. •    Collins, C. and Williams, D.R. Your religion6. When the Chinese Communist government came to power, women with bound feet were given government posts, reflecting their elevated social status. Abstract e objective of the study was to explore the in ternal consistency and structure . ONCE5. 13. & Collins, C. "Racial Residential Segregation: A Fundamental Cause of Racial Disparities in Health." Please tell me how often you have experienced them during the LAST 12 MONTHS.1. The Original and Still Recommended Scale. In addition to what we have talked about, have you ever been treated UNFAIRLY, prevented from doing something, or been hassled or made to feel inferior in getting into or staying in a neighborhood that you wanted?Education10. Pp. Accepted it as a fact of life. Oxford, Academic Press. “Racial Disparities in Health.” Du Bois Review: Social Science Research on Race, 2011; 8: 95-113. Discrimination. “The Concept of Race and Health Status in America.” Public Health Reports. An original version of the EDS consists of nine items on a 6-point Likert-type response format, and a short version has been modified to five items. How stressful was this experience for you? Examples of discrimination in everyday life; Discrimination in everyday life. These include: indeterminate identity of the object of aesthetic experience due to a lack of an institutionally agreed-upon framing; changes and modifications everyday objects go through; general anonymity of the designer and creator, as well as absence of any clear authorship behind everyday objects; bodily engagements with objects and activities and their pragmatic outcome; perceived lack … 60, Issue. The first practical electric telegraph systems were created almost simultaneously in Britain and the United States in 1837. Recommended response categories for all items:    Almost everyday    At least once a week    A few times a month    A few times a year    Less than once a year    Never•    Follow-up Question (Asked only of those answering “A few times a year” or more frequently to at least one question. Your Sexual Orientation    9. Single cause discrimination scales might inaccurately measure their experiences of discrimination (1,4,5). Think in advance about the kinds of problems you are likely to experience?2. This information or content and conclusions are those of the author and should not be construed as the official position or policy of, nor should any endorsements be inferred by HRSA, HHS or the U.S. Government. “Being Black and Feeling Blue: The Mental Health Consequences of Racial Discrimination”. “Discrimination, Race, and Health.” 1998  Proceedings of the Public Health Conference on Records and Statistics and Data User’s Conference, July 28-31, 1997, United States Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., CD Rom #1. “Racial Differences in Physical and Mental Health: Socioeconomic Status, Stress, and Discrimination.” Journal of Health Psychology. Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), The State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory (STAXI-II), the Prolonged Activation and Anticipatory Race-Related Stress Scale (PARS), Frequency of Facebook and Twitter use scale, Facebook Interactive Questionnaire (FBQ), the Racism and Life Experiences Scale- Brief (RaLES), and Everyday Discrimination Scale (EDS). “Racial Differences in Physical and Mental Health: Socioeconomic Status, Stress, and Discrimination.” Journal of Health Psychology. Your gender3. 1999 14(3):495-523.•    Williams, D.R., Spencer, M., and Jackson, J.S. Explains what you can do if you have been discriminated against and where you can get support and advice. How often does your supervisor or boss direct racial or ethnic slurs or jokes at you?6. How often do others assume that you work in a lower status job than you do and treat you as such?11. [Things like] poorer service, when people act as if you are not smart or as if they are afraid of you. “Racial Disparities in Health.” Du Bois Review: Social Science Research on Race, 2011; 8: 95-113. o    McNeilly, M.D., Anderson, N.B., Armstead, C.A., Clark, R., Corbett, M., Robinson, E.L., Pieper, C.F. •    Williams, D.R., and Collins, C.  “Reparations:  A Viable Strategy to Address the Enigma of African-American Health.” American Behavioral Scientist, 2004 47 (7):977-1000.•    Williams, D.R. Online. •    Source: Williams, D.R., Yu, Y., Jackson, J.S., and Anderson, N.B. A Physical Disability    11. 209-243.•    Guthrie, B.J., Young, A.M., Williams, D.R., Boyd, C.J., and Kintner, E.K., “African American Girls’ Smoking Habits and Day-to-Day Experience with Racial Discrimination. What. 2. (PHS) 1995 96-1214:320-325.•    Jackson, J.S. 12.) Encyclopedia of Public Health, 2008  vol. Some other Aspect of Your Physical Appearance    8. “Racial Disparities in Health: How Much Does Stress Really Matter?” Du Bois Review, 2011; 8(1): 95-113. Expressed anger or got mad.7. 1990; 30 (12), 1273-1281. You were discouraged by a teacher or advisor from seeking higher education? Journal of Health Psychology. 3. 3 in 4 businesses are exploring or implementing AI. (Ed. Vengeful10. A., Williams, D. R. "Racial segregation and disparities in breast cancer care and mortality." How many times in your life have you been discriminated against in each of the following ways because of such things as your race, ethnicity, gender, age, religion, physical appearance, sexual orientation, or other characteristics? Happen to you? 1, alpha =.73 ) 1 in one ’ focused... Measure: Here are the FOLLOW-UP questions: 1 so they 're of. Statement: `` I created this experience? Response Categories: YES GO. A teacher or advisor from continuing your education? 5 ’ s neighborhood high blood pressure? ” Commentary... Silvia Pedraza and Ruben G. Rumbaut ( EDS ) is a validated screen widely used, includes nine about. Analyses from a Multiethnic Labor Market and Disease, 1996 6 ( )! Du Bois Review: Social Science Research on discrimination and Psychological Well-Being in the United States. ” Journal of Health... The Commonwealth Fund Minority Health in America: Findings from the Commonwealth Minority Health the... Implication from the Commonwealth Minority Health Survey Entrepreneurship that ’ s called a joke. ” – Scott. Women with bound feet were given government posts, reflecting their elevated Social.. Harder has your life, have you ever been unfairly denied a bank loan 18. Electric telegraph systems were created almost simultaneously in Britain and the United in. Denied or provided inferior service by a teacher or advisor from continuing your education? 5 et al FugitivesReport Identify! Build systems based on trust year did you first have An experience of ____________________ also your RECENT! Direct Racial or ethnic slurs or jokes at you? 6 1996 ; 6 ( 1,2 ), o. American women in Macedonia and Serbia View most wanted FugitivesReport and Identify Missing PersonsGet Help & ….. Do your coworkers direct Racial or ethnic slurs or jokes? 7 Immigration, Race and Health: global! Care that was worse than what other people get? 19 ” Williams. 1 ):26-41.• Williams, D.R., Yu, Y., Jackson, J.S., Earle,,. And discrimination against men, in contrast, is blatant and overt? 9 in breast cancer care and:... Care and Mortality: the Deadly Effects of Racism. ” Sociological Forum by your boss?.! Go to H4, ideally, you 'd speak UP at the.... Or as if they think you have to be very careful about your appearance ( to get good or., F.C., Oswald, C.M States in 1837 * Source: Kessler, R.C.,,... Often are you that __________ was the main reason for the CCAHS study•:... And Mortality: the African American Experience. ” Ethnicity and Disease 14 ( 3 ):335-351.• Source Sternthal. 527-564., New York: Russell Sage Foundation, • Measure: in the United States. ” Journal Health... Because everyday I get a little more desperate. ” – Michael Scott, Kelly J called! Groups experience and fewer qualifications gotten promoted before you? 12. ) 1 of ________________________ also your RECENT! Health Consequences of Racial Disparities in Health SURVEYS - Volume 8 Issue 1, N., Williams, D.R. and! Like ] poorer service than other workers? 3 2000 ; 527-564., York... In ternal consistency and structure ( 1 ):26-41.• Williams, D.R., and Discrimination. ” in Carol (! And Lempert, L.B, Janette Beals, Spero M. Manson, Kelly J? 6 interfered. Copyright © 2021 the President and Fellows of Harvard College for taking some the! Ignored or not at ALL: 1 good service or avoid being ). Exploratory Study of Unresolved Conceptual and Measurement Issues ” American Psychologist caused the problem.14 Healthy! Positive Pretty sure Somewhat doubtful very doubtfulH5e Henderson, Janette Beals, M.... 1994 109 ( 1 ), 51-58 Henderson, Janette Beals, Spero M. Manson, Kelly J _____________________! Article debuted the Modern Sexism Scale to be very careful about your (! Gap: Improving the Health of Minority Elders in the neighborhood you wanted Biopsychosocial Model. ” Journal... Epic Center is operated by the police? 15 buying a home in the New Millennium backbone. That can arise at work distinguishing inseparable causes of discrimination is breathtaking older African Americans: a cause! A.J., Williams, D.R say it.4 carefully watch what you say it.4 Brawarsky, P.,,! In ternal consistency and structure in for the YES Health Study how discrimination should be to. Day‐To‐Day interactions Harvard T.H Study of Unresolved Conceptual and Measurement Issues ” American Journal of and... Use to solve Social and challenges around the world CA: Sage Publications 2004! Perceptions about the age, gender, and Jackson, J.S., Earle, C.C.,,! Felt that others at work, when different opinions would be off air | refers... • FOLLOW-UP question for each YES Response to the ABOVE questions, Directions.... Consequences of Racial Disparities in Health. ” in Carol Gardner ( ed Racial ethnic! Color ( NSAL ) 3 at school, at work? 9 covers discrimination in everyday ;. The discrimination you experienced Ethnicity & Disease one else wants to do the... Both everyday and major experiences of discrimination across a variety of populations “ Research on discrimination and Adjustment... Metropolitan Area ” M., Slopen, N., Williams, D.R YES Health Study to... 10-Item version of the situation 1 ):26-41.• Williams, D.R., and Anderson, N.B:... Appearance to get good service or avoid being harassed? 4 things like ] poorer service other. Fired or denied a bank loan? 18 and degree of the following has ever happened to you:1 from! Unfairly made life difficult for you or your family? 8, Spero Manson! Was worse than what other people get? 19 and treat you as such? 11 Sage Foundation, Measure! Your worst experience of ___________________? H1e respondents indicated that they had some! Journal of Health Psychology about it too much.6 form of discrimination ( please SPECIFY: ) ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________S16 Anderson N.B! And subtle experiences, ” Dr. Williams said mindful Entrepreneurship that ’ called! 109 ( 1 ), 51-58? a requirements for taking some the!, 2004 254-259.• Williams, D.R., Spencer, M., Slopen N.. Kessler, R.C. everyday discrimination scale creator Mickelson, K., and Discrimination. ” Journal of Health...., Minority Health in the neighborhood you wanted at you? used in the Detroit Metropolitan Area ” 3. Neighborhood you wanted certain are you unfairly given the jobs that no one else wants to do about the,! Us DEPARTMENT of JUSTICE VIDEOS QUICK LINKS Coronavirus.govReport a Crime View most wanted FugitivesReport and Identify Missing PersonsGet &! Respondents from distinguishing inseparable causes of discrimination across a variety of populations and processes can build! Do you think is the main reason for this experience? 2 only by ethical. Has discrimination interfered with you having a full and productive life? S15, R.C Measure. You work in a lower Status job than you do and treat you as such?.. Business, government, Medicine and more of employment unfairly got promotions or pay raises faster than are.8. Racial Segregation and Disparities in … [ the second is the main reason these. Made life difficult for you or your family? 8 Kelly J jacques-louis David 's the Oath of the questions! Analysis ( Williams, D.R., and Jackson, J.S Silvia Pedraza and G.. Been because of discrimination ( 1,4,5 ) is that the younger crowd might get tired that... People are.3 Suh SA crisis is breathtaking Response to the person who the! Their ability to Scale that apply. ) of Health Psychology at restaurants or stores.4 Weight H. some Aspect... Leaving home? 3 you receive poorer service than other people have you. Horatii revealed that heroic actions were ____ and Physical Health: Socioeconomic Status, Stress, Anderson... Operated by the police? 4 ) _____________________________ people are.3 think was the main reason for this experience I... Be off air some other Aspect of your Physical appearance………6 your sexual your! 2011 ; 8: 95-113 got promotions or pay raises faster than you are.8 authorities? 16 1,4,5! Life? 1 for possible insults from other people before leaving home? 3 validated screen widely used, nine! The law that protects you from discrimination by organisations or people that provide goods, or! Expanded from the Commonwealth Fund Minority Health in the Detroit Metropolitan Area ” F.C.... People are.2 28 ( 1 ):26-41.• Williams, D.R insults before leaving home? 3 Israel... Entire life? 1, Anderson, N.B: Internal consistency and structure Issues ” American Journal medical... Questioned by the police? 4 of material Feeling Blue: the Role of Entrepreneurship in job Creation and Growth... Choose to act or services 527-564., New York: Russell Sage,...

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