The Western Hudson Bay subpopulation is unusual in that its female polar bears sometimes wean their cubs at only one and a half years. For decades, large-scale hunting raised international concern for the future of the species, but populations rebounded after controls and quotas began to take effect. Weight depends upon age, sex, season, food, and genetics. An adult male ranges from 7.9 to 9.8 feet in length and weighs 770 to 1500 pounds. Ursus eogroenlandicus Ursus maritimus are sexually dimorphic in fact one of the most dimorphic mammals in the marine world. The heaviest male polar bear on record weighed 2209 pounds (1002 kgs). How Many Pounds Does a Polar Bear Weigh? The whales are of similar size to the walrus and nearly as difficult for the bear to subdue. The Polar Bear can easily use its weight to crush the lion within no time.  The remains of polar bears have found in the stomachs of large Greenland sharks (Somniosus microcephalus), although it certainly cannot be ruled out that the bears were merely scavenged by this slow-moving, unusual shark. Fish and Wildlife Service published a draft conservation management plan for polar bears to improve their status under the Endangered Species Act and the Marine Mammal Protection Act.  Polar bears sometimes swim underwater to catch fish like the Arctic charr or the fourhorn sculpin. Indeed, it has been suggested that Arctic peoples' skills in seal hunting and igloo construction has been in part acquired from the polar bears themselves. , Concerns over the future survival of the species led to the development of national regulations on polar bear hunting, beginning in the mid-1950s. ", Of the 19 recognized polar bear subpopulations, one is in decline, two are increasing, seven are stable, and nine have insufficient data, as of 2017. Clyde, a Kodiak brown bear, weighed 2,130 pounds at the time of his death in 1987 at the Dakota Zoo in Bismarck, N.D.  The pads of the paws are covered with small, soft papillae (dermal bumps), which provide traction on the ice. In preparation, the animals dig a cave from a snow bank in which to have their cubs. , The evidence from DNA analysis is more complex.  Other provisions included year-round protection of cubs and mothers, restrictions on weapons used and various administrative requirements to catalogue kills. Shifts in polar bear diet during the ice-free season in western Hudson Bay", "Predation of Svalbard reindeer by polar bears", "White-beaked dolphins trapped in the ice and eaten by polar bears", "Rejected by their mother, polar cubs now under intensive care at Toronto Zoo", "Two cubs die as mother polar bear turns on her three newborns | National Post", "Infanticide and Cannibalism of Juvenile Polar Bears (, "Long-term trends in the population ecology of polar bears in Western Hudson Bay in relation to climatic change", Polar bears, grizzlies increasingly gather on North Slope, "ABC News: Grizzlies encroaching on polar bear Country", "Clash of the fiercest predators as shark eats polar bear", "Polar bears can swim vast distances, study finds", "The vitamin A content and toxicity of bear and seal liver", "U.S. and Russia sign pact to protect the polar bear", "Circumpolar Action Plan: Conservation Strategy for Polar Bears", "Did Polar Bears Really Lose at CITES? The average weight of a female polar bear in pounds is about 573 pounds. Constantine John Phipps was the first to describe the polar bear as a distinct species in 1774. The weight of an adult female is one half of the male’s body mass. In Nunavut, some Inuit have reported increases in bear sightings around human settlements in recent years, leading to a belief that populations are increasing. They may also eat plants, including berries, roots, and kelp; however, none of these have been a significant part of their diet, except for beachcast marine mammal carcasses. , Modern methods of tracking polar bear populations have been implemented only since the mid-1980s, and are expensive to perform consistently over a large area.  It is sometimes referred to as the "nanook", based on the Inuit term nanuq.. Polar Bear Fast Facts. Researchers in Canada estimated one male bear at 800 kilograms (1,700 pounds)! Extra weight is not because of cubs but due to the extra fats which she stored. , Warnings about the future of the polar bear are often contrasted with the fact that worldwide population estimates have increased over the past 50 years and are relatively stable today. In addition to monitoring sea-ice changes, the researchers incorporated data from previous polar bear studies in the same Arctic regions that also indicated the likelihood that progressively earlier break-up of sea ice was likely to cause problems for polar bears. Researchers have not demonstrated that making long swims in summer has a “very high cost” for polar bears – saying so is spreading misinformation. Species - The largest determining factor for a bear's weight is the species of that bear. Polar bear adults.  Many attacks by brown bears are the result of surprising the animal, which is not the case with the polar bear.  Halocarbons (also known as organohalogens) are known to be toxic to other animals, because they mimic hormone chemistry, and biomarkers such as immunoglobulin G and retinol suggest similar effects on polar bears.  A study in Hudson Bay indicated that both the reproductive success and the maternal weight of females peaked in their mid-teens.Maternal success appeared to decline after this point, possibly because of an age-related impairment in the ability to store the fat necessary to rear cubs..  In September 2015, the polar bear range states agreed upon a "circumpolar action plan" describing their conservation strategy for polar bears. Appenzeller, T. and Dimick, D. R. (2004) "The Heat is On,", List of We Bare Bears characters § Ice Bear, International Agreement on the Conservation of Polar Bears, Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment, International Union for Conservation of Nature, 2019 mass invasion of Russian polar bears, "Late Pleistocene fossil find in Svalbard: the oldest remains of a polar bear (, 10.2305/IUCN.UK.2015-4.RLTS.T22823A14871490.en, "Alaska, Chukotka sign agreement to manage polar bears", "Education: Marine Mammal Information: Polar Bears", "Unequal Rates of Y Chromosome Gene Divergence during Speciation of the Family Ursidae", "Molecular distance and divergence time in carnivores and primates", "Complete mitochondrial genome of a Pleistocene jawbone unveils the origin of polar bear", "Ancient Hybridization and an Irish Origin for the Modern Polar Bear Matriline", "Nuclear Genomic Sequences Reveal that Polar Bears Are an Old and Distinct Bear Lineage", "Population Genomics Reveal Recent Speciation and Rapid Evolutionary Adaptation in Polar Bears", "Brown bears and polar bears split up, but continued coupling", "List of Marine Mammal Species & Subspecies", "Genetic structure of the world's polar bear populations", Supplementary material for Ursus maritimus Red List assessment, "Killing polar bears in Iceland "only logical thing to do, "The war over the polar bear: Who's telling the truth about the fate of a Canadian icon? Seals migrate in response to these changes, and polar bears must follow their prey. Canada allocates a certain number of permits each year to sport and subsistence hunting, and those that are not used for sport hunting are re-allocated to indigenous subsistence hunting. A 1000lb bear can 200 lbs worth of food in a single meal. That same 1000lb polar bear now weighs 1200lbs. , Because of the way polar bear hunting quotas are managed in Canada, attempts to discourage sport hunting would actually increase the number of bears killed in the short term.  A comparison of the nuclear genome of polar bears with that of brown bears revealed a different pattern, the two forming genetically distinct clades that diverged approximately 603,000 years ago, although the latest research is based on analysis of the complete genomes (rather than just the mitochondria or partial nuclear genomes) of polar and brown bears, and establishes the divergence of polar and brown bears at 400,000 years ago. , The polar bear is a marine mammal because it spends many months of the year at sea. When the seal exhales, the bear smells its breath, reaches into the hole with a forepaw, and drags it out onto the ice. On 15 May 2008, the United States Department of the Interior listed the polar bear as a threatened species under the Endangered Species Act, citing the melting of Arctic sea ice as the primary threat to the polar bear.  Although ungulates are not typical prey, the killing of one during the summer months can greatly increase the odds of survival during that lean period. The largest polar bear in history hit the scales at whopping 2,209 pounds (157.7 stone, 1,001kg) back in 1960, so Fat Albert still has a way to go yet. The killing of females and cubs was made illegal in 1965. What the scientists found is that five of the bears lost weight and four of them lost 2.9 to 5.5 pounds per day. Their scientific name means "maritime bear" and derives from this fact. ; Polar Bears feed on a high caloric diet, mostly on the seals’ fat which is the primary reason of their heavy weight. 2. A healthy weight for polar bear will be around 1 ton= 1,000 pounds to 2 ton 2,000 lbs, but right now they are facing weather changing. The mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of the polar bear diverged from the brown bear, Ursus arctos, roughly 150,000 years ago. Number of Claws, How to Draw a Polar Bear for Kids – Super Simple Steps, Images, Videos, Is a Polar Bear Bigger than a Grizzly Bear? Due to the absence of human development in its remote habitat, it retains more of its original range than any other extant carnivore. This subpopulation feeds heavily on ringed seals in late spring, when newly weaned and easily hunted seal pups are abundant. Females are smaller, averaging about 550 pounds. For the polar bears that currently den on multi-year ice, increased ice mobility may result in longer distances for mothers and young cubs to walk when they return to seal-hunting areas in the spring. They can live for up to 25 years.  As the distance increases between the pack ice and the coast, females must swim longer distances to reach favoured denning areas on land. The earliest recorded birth of polar bears in captivity was on 11 October 2011 in the Toronto Zoo. During the same time periods, DDT was found to be notably lower in the Western Hudson Bay population only. Norway is the only country of the five in which all harvest of polar bears is banned.  Although most polar bears are born on land, they spend most of their time on the sea ice.  In most subpopulations, maternity dens are situated on land a few kilometres from the coast, and the individuals in a subpopulation tend to reuse the same denning areas each year. , The territory of Nunavut accounts for the location 80% of annual kills in Canada. The 42 teeth of a polar bear reflect its highly carnivorous diet. Adult polar bears can grow up to 2.8 meters (9.1 feet) long and weigh around 800 kilograms (1,763 pounds).  The proportion of maternity dens on sea ice has changed from 62% between the years 1985 through 1994, to 37% over the years 1998 through 2004.  However, recent reanalysis of the fossil suggests that it was actually a brown bear. Both male and female polar bears live to be as much as 30 years old (in a zoo).  In 2010, the Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment published a strategy for polar bear conservation in Russia. One bear lost 51 pounds in just nine days. Weighing a massive 1600 pounds at most, fate may definitely weigh on the Polar Bear’s side. The polar bear's Latin name, Ursus maritimus, means "sea bear." Femalesare generally 6-8 feet tall. The melting sea ice in the Arctic may be causing an increase of orcas in the Arctic sea, which may increase the risk of predation on polar bears but also may benefit the bears by providing more whale carcasses that they can scavenge. He was 22. The fur of the polar bear is not really white, it’s transparent.  While all bears are short-tailed, the polar bear's tail is relatively the shortest amongst living bears, ranging from 7 to 13 cm (2.8 to 5.1 in) in length.. Polar bear milk is the fattiest found on land, at about 31 percent fat when the cubs are born. Michio Hoshino, a Japanese wildlife photographer, was once pursued briefly by a hungry male polar bear in northern Alaska.  The bears could disappear from Europe, Asia, and Alaska, and be depleted from the Canadian Arctic Archipelago and areas off the northern Greenland coast.  However, in the short term, some polar bear populations in historically colder regions of the Arctic may temporarily benefit from a milder climate, as multiyear ice that is too thick for seals to create breathing holes is replaced by thinner annual ice. , The polar bear's most common hunting method is called still-hunting: the bear uses its excellent sense of smell to locate a seal breathing hole, and crouches nearby in silence for a seal to appear. Scientific name: Ursus maritimus Other names: ice bear, sea bear, and white bear Average weight: Female–660 pounds (300 kg), male–1,000 to 1,300 pounds (500 to 600 kg) Average length: Female–5 to 8 feet (1.6 to 2.5 m; male–900 to 1,600 pounds (2.2 to 2.5 m) Fur: Hollow and transparent; appears white because of the light it reflects.  In two areas where harvest levels have been increased based on increased sightings, science-based studies have indicated declining populations, and a third area is considered data-deficient. The polar bear is the largest land carnivore alive in the world today. Polar bears hunt their preferred food of seals from the edge of sea ice, often living off fat reserves when no sea ice is present. So you want to know how strong this guy truly is….. What makes a polar bear so strong is its whopping bite force of 1200 pounds per square inch. , Debate over the listing of the polar bear under endangered species legislation has put conservation groups and Canada's Inuit at opposing positions; the Nunavut government and many northern residents have condemned the U.S. initiative to list the polar bear under the Endangered Species Act. Seal meat, the polar bear snack of choice, has a very high fat content. 2. Polar bear cubs are 30 cm long at birth and weigh 16 to 24 oz. Male polar bears average nearly 900 pounds in weight, with one weighing in at 1,760 pounds; by comparison, the average brown bear weighs in at 600 pounds. They can occasionally drift widely with the sea ice, and there have been anecdotal sightings as far south as Berlevåg on the Norwegian mainland and the Kuril Islands in the Sea of Okhotsk.  Current estimates put the global population at between 20,000 and 25,000 or 22,000 and 31,000.  In the Norwegian-administered Svalbard archipelago, the polar bear is referred to as Isbjørn ("ice bear"). , Polar bears are superbly insulated by up to 10 cm (4 in) of adipose tissue, their hide and their fur; they overheat at temperatures above 10 °C (50 °F), and are nearly invisible under infrared photography. We have also seen polar bear standing on its hind legs and in that position it can be even more taller. ; Polar bears living around Beaufort Sea has an average weight of around 992 lb i.e. Risks to the polar bear include climate change, pollution in the form of toxic contaminants, conflicts with shipping, oil and gas exploration and development, and human-bear interactions including harvesting and possible stresses from recreational polar-bear watching. , Problematic interactions between polar bears and humans, such as foraging by bears in garbage dumps, have historically been more prevalent in years when ice-floe breakup occurred early and local polar bears were relatively thin. , Females begin to breed at the age of four years in most areas, and five years in the area of the Beaufort Sea. The average polar bear studied weighed about 386 pounds. Some regulations of hunting did exist. They can be 7.25 to 8 ft tall .  The bear is umka in the Chukchi language. However, a Kodiak Bear does prove a tough opponent. A 1000lb bear can 200 lbs worth of food in a single meal. Polar bears have 42 teeth.  The polar bear tends to frequent areas where sea ice meets water, such as polynyas and leads (temporary stretches of open water in Arctic ice), to hunt the seals that make up most of its diet. , This article is about the animal. Ferguson, S. H., Higdon, J. W., & Westdal, K. H. (2012). A Polar Bear is the bigger and heavier beast of the two.  Satiated polar bears rarely attack humans unless severely provoked. – Polar Bear Species, What Does a Baby Polar Bear Look Like? Black skin is kept warm by a six-inch layer of fat and the hollow hairs of the fur, which directs sunlight to the skin to help warm it. Polar bears aren’t just huge creatures; they are massive!  The causes of death in wild adult polar bears are poorly understood, as carcasses are rarely found in the species's frigid habitat. An adult male ranges from 7.9 to 9.8 feet in length and weighs 770 to 1500 pounds. , In Alaska, the effects of sea ice shrinkage have contributed to higher mortality rates in polar bear cubs, and have led to changes in the denning locations of pregnant females.  The oldest known polar bear fossil is a 130,000 to 110,000-year-old jaw bone, found on Prince Charles Foreland in 2004. What the scientists found is that five of the bears lost weight and four of them lost 2.9 to 5.5 pounds (1.3 to 2.5 kilograms) per day.  However, due to the very small human population around the Arctic, such attacks are rare. The greatest weight recorded for a polar bear in the wild is an incredible 1002 kg ( 2,210 pounds ) for a white colossus shot by Arthur Dubs of Medford, Oregon, U.S.A., at the polar entrance to Kotzebue Sound, NW Alaska, in 1960. In addition to monitoring sea-ice changes, the researchers incorporated data from previous polar bear studies in the same Arctic regions that also indicated the likelihood that progressively earlier break-up of sea ice was likely to cause problems for polar bears. sergei gladyshev / Getty Images. Polar bears appear to be less affected by infectious diseases and parasites than most terrestrial mammals.  The polar bears that do not den on land make their dens on the sea ice.  The fur was used in particular to make trousers and, by the Nenets, to make galoshes-like outer footwear called tobok; the meat is edible, despite some risk of trichinosis; the fat was used in food and as a fuel for lighting homes, alongside seal and whale blubber; sinews were used as thread for sewing clothes; the gallbladder and sometimes heart were dried and powdered for medicinal purposes; the large canine teeth were highly valued as talismans. The heaviest polar bear ever recorded at the Guinness Book of World Records measured at 849 to 904 pounds.  Some estimates of the global population are around 5,000 to 10,000 in the early 1970s; other estimates were 20,000 to 40,000 during the 1980s. It was believed that the "little nephew" (the brown bear) would not dare to attack a man wearing the tooth of its powerful "big uncle", the polar bear.  Polar bear fur consists of a layer of dense underfur and an outer layer of guard hairs, which appear white to tan but are actually transparent. The greatest weight recorded for a polar bear in the wild is an incredible 1002 kg ( 2,210 pounds ) for a white colossus shot by Arthur Dubs of Medford, Oregon, U.S.A., at the polar entrance to Kotzebue Sound, NW Alaska, in 1960. The largest bear in the world and the Arctic's top predator, polar bears are a powerful symbol of the strength and endurance of the Arctic. Main Article: How Much Does a Baby Polar Bear Weigh? Soon after age they will put on much weight because of pregnancy. Adult males weigh between 350 to 680 kilograms (770 to 1500 pounds). Yet, polar bears will very seldom attack full-grown adult walruses, with the largest male walrus probably invulnerable unless otherwise injured or incapacitated. In unusually warm conditions, the hollow tubes provide an excellent home for algae. This cave is called a maternity den.A female polar bear typically gives birth to twins, though singles and triplets have been recorded. In the wild, old polar bears eventually become too weak to catch food, and gradually starve to death.  Adult muskox, which can weigh 450 kg (1,000 lb) or more, are a more formidable quarry. , Many chemicals, such as PCBs and DDT, have been internationally banned due to the recognition of their harm on the environment. When walking, the polar bear tends to have a lumbering gait and maintains an average speed of around 5.6 km/h (3.5 mph). , Oil and gas development in polar bear habitat can affect the bears in a variety of ways. In Hudson Bay, James Bay, and some other areas, the ice melts completely each summer (an event often referred to as "ice-floe breakup"), forcing polar bears to go onto land and wait through the months until the next freeze-up.  During this time, cubs playfully imitate the mother's hunting methods in preparation for later life. , Being both curious animals and scavengers, polar bears investigate and consume garbage where they come into contact with humans. Ursus polaris The average polar bear weight ranges from 849 to 904 lbs i.e. This hibernation-like state does not consist of continuous sleeping; however, the bear's heart rate slows from 46 to 27 beats per minute. Other names they are known by include ice bear and isbj.  Insufficient nourishment leads to lower reproductive rates in adult females and lower survival rates in cubs and juvenile bears, in addition to poorer body condition in bears of all ages. Male polar bears also hunt larger bearded seals. , Their distinctive appearance and their association with the Arctic have made polar bears popular icons, especially in those areas where they are native. Polar bears exposed to oil spill conditions have been observed to lick the oil from their fur, leading to fatal kidney failure. A year prior to his death, zookeepers estimated his weight was close to 2,400. , In Greenland, hunting restrictions were first introduced in 1994 and expanded by executive order in 2005. Other names they are known by include ice bear and isbj.  The Polar Bear Specialist Group of the IUCN Species Survival Commission takes the position that "estimates of subpopulation size or sustainable harvest levels should not be made solely on the basis of traditional ecological knowledge without supporting scientific studies. Yet, they have often been seen playing together for hours at a time and even sleeping in an embrace, and polar bear zoologist Nikita Ovsianikov has described adult males as having "well-developed friendships.  Polar bears gradually moult from May to August, but, unlike other Arctic mammals, they do not shed their coat for a darker shade to provide camouflage in summer conditions. , The effects of climate change are most profound in the southern part of the polar bear's range, and this is indeed where significant degradation of local populations has been observed. Given the change in climate, with ice breaking up in areas such as the Hudson Bay earlier than it used to, polar bears are exploiting food resources such as snow geese and eggs, and plants such as lyme grass in increased quantities. , In August 2011, Environment Canada published a national polar bear conservation strategy. Most polar bears elsewhere will never have access to these alternatives, except for the marine mammal carcasses that are important wherever they occur. Biologist Ian Stirling commented, "For many years, the conservation of polar bears was the only subject in the entire Arctic that nations from both sides of the Iron Curtain could agree upon sufficiently to sign an agreement.  Polar bears have a generally polygynous mating system; recent genetic testing of mothers and cubs, however, has uncovered cases of litters in which cubs have different fathers. An adult male, also known as a boar, weighs between 775 pounds and 1,400 pounds (351 to 635 kg). Polar bears sometimes have problems with various skin diseases that may be caused by mites or other parasites. The weight of a male polar bear reaches up to 1200 pounds. Adult females are around 200 to 700 pounds. The female will come out of den in the spring season. Compared with its closest relative, the brown bear, the polar bear has a more elongated body build and a longer skull and nose. 2. Polar bears can swim 10 km/h (6 mph). Like the brown bear, most ungulate prey of polar bears is likely to be young, sickly or injured specimens rather than healthy adults. , Female polar bears have been known to adopt other cubs. , After mating, the fertilized egg remains in a suspended state until August or September.  Partners stay together and mate repeatedly for an entire week; the mating ritual induces ovulation in the female. 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